Navigator without GPS
The first commercially popular navigation system for cars was introduced in the United States in 1985 under the name Etak and worked without GPS. When starting working with the system, the user entered the current location and made a calibration check-in. Further, the movement of the car was determined by magnetic sensors installed on the wheels and compass readings, and the location was displayed on a vector map in a monochrome screen. The card data was stored on special cassettes, which had to be changed periodically due to their limited volume.